Reilly, The general public license of GNU operating system allows users receive all their rights in essential freedoms mentioned above. In the idea achieved its goals in software filed and became more trusted by users and developers Raymond It is a free encyclopedia started in the beginnings of by means of highly qualified contributors. It provides 19 free encyclopedias in 19 different languages and its content has been created by user contributions. Many other examples like Apache web server, BIND name server and Linux operating system kernel are free for any user to use, amend and share.
But what are the incentives other developers have to become contributors in open source projects? In other words, why do programmers volunteer their time and experience without any financial returns to create free software? Raymond is one of the first GNU contributors, a developer of many net open source software and a significant participant in Linux operating system development.
He added that the democratic atmosphere in bazaar model motivated him and his partners to work hard regardless of financial returns Raymond It is surprising that hackers are also a significant motivating factor; they lead developers to impress their peers, gain a better reputation and raise their ranks in society Zaleski et al. Wikipedia showed, in a study made up by Wikipedia administrators, that the reason for their participants to be a part in such free work is the desire to create a benefit thing that helps others and meets their requirements Wikipedia While the basic motivations for corporation in learners open source community are learning specific topics, learning how to be future learners and projects creating.
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These factors refer that open source software is likely to be the best solution for any project if needed features are provided. Besides, developers have created it according to own needs which means that it is in a high level of quality and efficiency. Time and cost are essential factors in software development and they can be exploited by using of OSS which reduces the number of programmers employer has to pay himself, provides a ready tested code from other projects and thus reduces the time it takes to build, test and develop. Besides that creating software by many developers, each has revised and corrected its errors and each has a different background, leads to less bugs and faster detection and correction.
Openness of source code provides communication paths and interactive communities. It is expected in this style of community to switch roles among its members, where students may be assigned particular roles to take on for the studied project. Baytiyeh, J. Pfaffman, Another advantage for open source software, which Zaleski stated in his article, that open source innovation was the reason for Linux operating system to move quickly from being an ambiguous operating system used by programmers and hackers to an essential operating system in business area On the other hand, open source technology resolved the problem of knowledge transfer in developing countries.
Direct import of software not only costs these countries high amounts of money, but also puts them in complex troubles where they do not know how to develop this software to meet the local needs Alkhatib Why do some organizations still buy commercial software instead of using free ones? The voluntary of open source projects and the relative lake of financial support make them far from marketing and advertising. This means that many organizations have not been informed that free solutions relevant to their needs are available freely.
Some managers do not know how to implement and use open source applications and they may be unaware of the range of services provided with such applications like support services and consultations. This website consists of more than , open source applications with their latest software updates where the accessibility is allowed for any organization to find suitable free software according to its requirements.
Further, assistance with the technical issues of open source applications implementation is available by many open source consultants like IBM, Red Hat, and Open Sky Consulting. The independency between open source software developers groups leads to different versions of same software.
How to Write an Essay/Parts
Although these versions started with the same source code, they are not able to interoperate because these groups create their own versions without coordination. As a result, the open source BSD-Unix community was divided into three portions in early s, and Emacs text editor and NCSA web server are other examples where both forked into two divisions in and respectively.
Many versions of one software leads adopters to choose one to support, consequently, software will not gain the critical mass of adopters it aims to do. On the other hand, venders will be put in a point of choosing to support one of forked versions or all of them in their own applications. In this case, some adopters and vendors decide to wait for a standard version or to stall their adoption and supporting NAGY et al. No one can predict the future of software, but developers can expect that open source software will be stronger and gain increased faith from traditional software industry.
Historically, one can recognize the discontinuities appeared between IBM System in the s, first PC in the end of s and the open source movement in the s. So it is expected that this technology gap will take place in the next years for a new software innovation Campbell-Kelly IT has brought many significant solutions for environmental sustainability, but at the same time, it caused a lot of problems especially in data centers where energy is consumed enormously Murugesan Computers impact environment from the first stage of producing to the last stage of disposal.
Moreover, increased consumption of energy leads to more greenhouse gas emissions because the main source of energy is coil, oil or gas burning Murugesan Dell and Hewlett-Packard are two computer manufacturers.
What are the advantages of open source software? | Computerworld
They decided to solve the problem by retooling their products. On the other hand, the solution from the standpoint of David Wang, the data center architect for Teradata, is not to replace all old computers by others which are more environments friendly. He confirmed that attention must be drawn to increasing power consumption as well as to heat removal in data centers Kurp Murugesan has illustrated areas and activities which are involved in green IT solutions as the following:.
Other solutions have been produced by Hasbrouck and Woodruff. They suggested two strategies for green computing:. As a result of these problems caused by computers, many associations are turning to green computing to save money and reduce waste. To do so, Dick Sullivan listed five major trends:. Many efforts have been made to support the idea of green IT. It seeks to reduce electric power consumption of PCs and it has established a catalogue of green products from organizations involved with, in addition to helpful information about reducing PC energy consumption.
This initiative is a group of consumers, businesses and conservation organizations formed in , it has gained brilliant results where 50 percent of energy consumed by computers was economized by , and it was able to reduce global CO 2 emissions from the operation of computers by 54 million tons a year Wikipedia The choice of writing software comes down to your personal taste.
Everyday users are happy to shed a few dollars to purchase a well-known writing tool such as MS Word. Tech savvies welcome open source projects such as OpenOffice and LibreOffice. Whereas, the research community is much more adventurous and has embraced the type-setting system, Latex as their writing medium. Blog writers and journalists use online writing tools such as GoogleDocs and DropBox Paper as they find these tools perfect for collaborating with others.
Novel writers use more fancy writing tools such as Scrivener to organize their ideas and create a storyboard to help them write. In this blog, we review some of the common writing tools and software used by writers.
Click here to visit the blog on Writing Tools and Software…. Referencing Tools and Reference Management Software. Referencing tools are handy to organize and format references so that you can easily incorporate them in your essays, research papers, dissertations and PhD thesis. There are many terms used for such tools such as referencing software, referencing tool, reference management software, citation software, citation app, paper software, citation manager, research paper management tool, bibliography software, literature review software, literature management software and research paper organizer.
These all refer to a piece of software or an online tool that allows you to store and format references. It is very important that you choose a right tool for your research and stick to it. We have reviewed some of the popular referencing tools used in the scientific community below from an academic writing perspective.
Click here to visit the blog on Referencing Tools…. Research Tools and Software. If you are conducting research, it is very important that you have appropriate methods and tools to carry out your research. If you are a non-native English speaker, then you need a research tool to help you with your written language. If your research involves data analysis, then you need a good statistical research tool for your work. It is also important that you keep tabs on what other people in your research arena are doing, so you need research tools such as Google Scholar and ResearchGate to collaborate with your peers.
You also need a good plagiarism checking software to avoid academic misconduct. Finally, you need a research project management software to stay on top of the deadlines.
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In this blog, we review some of the useful tools for research that researchers can use to be more productive. Click here to visit the blog on Research Tools….
Grammar Checkers and Sentence Correction Tools. When you are writing your paper or essay, it is very important to ensure that your document does not contain typos, grammatical errors, and bad sentence structure.